This is a case of a pars interartcularis defect with anterolisthesis, also called spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis. Mild response to facet injections, but significant relief with l4 pars defect injection for a few days. Of, near, or situated in the part of the back and sides between the lowest ribs and. Spondylolysis presents predominantly in the lower lumbar segment, where the concentration of mechanical stress is high. An mri scan can evaluate changes in the par interarticularis to diagnose active spondylolysis or. A pars defect is the name given to a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis which is located in the back portion of the vertebra. Direct repair of the defect may be utilized in young adult patients without significant disc degeneration and lumbar instability. In spondylolysis, a crack or stress fracture develops through the pars interarticularis, which is a small, thin portion of the vertebra that connects the upper and lower facet joints. With type ii spondylolisthesis, theres a problem with the pars interarticularis, a particular region of your vertebra. Avoid all activities and positions that promote hyperextension of the lower lumbar spine. Unilateral spondylolysis, a unilateral osseous defect or fracture in the pars interarticularis, is a rare and unique entity that accounts for 333% of all cases of spondylolysis, which occurs in approximately 37% of the general population 49. Lumbar definition of lumbar by the free dictionary. This may cause compression on nerve roots exiting through the intervertebral foramen, resulting in pain andor radiculopathy radiating pain, numbness or weakness in.
However, i couldnt help but wonder whether the bilateral pars defects were preexisting or represented an acute fracture due to the trauma. Pars defect may be present since childhood without any. Spondylolisthesis refers to a condition of the spine where a vertebra is displaced from its normal position. If the physician is concerned about subtle pars defect, an ap spot view or oblique views are warranted to evaluate the pars region optimally. Have a late twenty old girl with l4 and incidentally found l2 pars defects bilaterally. Pars defect definition of pars defect by the free dictionary. The arch is formed of soft fibrous tissue and there is a weak link with adjacent vertebrae so that the condition of spondylolisthesis may occur. Direct repair of the pars defect is a logical alternative to fusion as it helps to preserve the.
Utilize the latest physical therapy modalities and rehab devices to reduce swelling and decrease pain. In other words, in the axial view, it is the bony mass between the facets that is anterior to the lamina and posterior to the pedicle. Decompression pars defect treatment bonati spine institute. Anterior slippage of the l5 vertebra on sacrum is indicated by arrow with base. This spinal condition most commonly presents as a degenerative disease in adults but may be present in adolescents as a result of deformity or trauma.
The incidence of pars interarticularis defects in athletes samuel. My mri says pars defect bilaterally with 3mm anterolisthesis of l5 on s1 and significant facet arthopathyhypertrophy at the l4l5 level with mild to moderate foraminal narrowing stenosis. Spondylolysis spondeelowlyesis is defined as a defect or stress fracture in the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch. A defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch 4. Predictive factors for the outcome of surgical treatment. Three stages of injury to the pars interarticularisthe portion of the lower spine that joins together the upper and lower jointsexist. Pars defect definition of pars defect by medical dictionary. The patient with lumbar spondylolysis typically complains of progressive back pain in the lumbar region, exacerbated by extension or twisting of. Regarding surgical treatment, various techniques to directly repair the pars defect have been described 210.
The factors that predict the outcome after direct repair of lumbar pars defect was evaluated clinically and statistically. Apr 22, 2019 pars defect is a condition that affects the lumbar spine, causing low back pain. The lifetime prevalence of lbp in those aged 1117 years has been reported to be as high as 30. The pars defects are particularly well displayed on the t1 spair and t1 spair inverted acquisitions. Minimally invasive direct repair of bilateral lumbar spine. Only few sporting individuals with symptomatic lumbar pars injuries require surgical repair and it is often difficult to predict the outcome following surgery. The vast majority of cases occur in the lower lumbar vertebrae l5, but spondylolysis may also occur in the cervical vertebrae.
In contrast to singlelevel pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no. Also called isthmic, this is the most common kind of spondylolisthesis. A pars injection is usually administered in patients with spondylolisthesis for the diagnosis of pars defect, a small fracture in the area of the vertebrae. These techniques include bone grafting with the placement of wire.
Pars defect synonyms, pars defect pronunciation, pars defect translation, english dictionary definition of pars defect. Spinal surgeons have used dynamic lumbar spinal plain x. Statgraphics xvi software statpoint technologies inc, warrenton, va, usa was used for statistical analysis. Pars defect is also known as par interarticularis defect or pars fracture of the lumbar spine. Spondylolisthesis is a condition in which one of the vertebrae slips out of place onto the bone below it. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis pars defect has been estimated to be approximately 6% in the general population 1. Commonly a pars defect in the lumbar spine results in spondylolisthesis, but the severity and type of the anterior slippage is the determining factor in. Treatment for spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis in.
Pdf spondylolysis is a fracture of the bone lamina in the pars interarticularis. We used minimally invasive techniques to place pars interarticularis screws with the use of an intraoperative ct scanner in three. However, i couldnt help but wonder whether the bilateral pars defects were pre existing or represented an acute fracture due to the trauma. A pars defect, or pars fracture, is a break in the pars interarticularis, which can lead to a separation of the upper, front portion of the vertebra from the lower, back portion. Keywords low back pain, spondylolisthesis, anterior lumbar interbody fusion, lumbar interbody fusion, pars interarticularis defect introduction spondylolysis commonly occurs in the population, although progression to symptomatic spondylolisthesis is rare. Chiropractic management of mechanical low back pain. These injuries are thought to be due to chronic repetitive stress at the pars interarticularis, and most commonly occur at the l5s1 level. The pars interarticularis, or pars for short, is the part of a vertebra located between the inferior and superior articular processes of the facet joint. Spondylolysis is a fracture of the bone lamina in the pars interarticularis and has. Pars defect is one of the common causes of back pain in adolescents.
This is also referred to as spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis. In other words, in the axial view, it is the bony mass between the facets that is anterior to the lamina and posterior to the. In the transverse plane, it lies between the lamina and pedicle. If a vertebra slips too much, it can press on a spinal nerve and cause pain. In spondylolysis, a crack or stress fracture develops through the pars interarticularis, which is a small, thin portion of the vertebra that connects the upper and lower facet joints most commonly, this fracture occurs in the fifth vertebra of the lumbar lower spine, although it sometimes occurs in the fourth lumbar vertebra. Treatment for spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis in colorado. As a result of this defect the upper vertebra slips forward and creates instability within the vertebral segment with following compression of the. Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below include isthmic, dysplastic and others.
Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. Although lumbar spondylolysis is generally attributed to repetitive stress imposed by physical activity resulting in fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis, 1,2 the etiology is likely multifactorial with elements of both inherited predisposition and repetitive trauma. Commonly a pars defect in the lumbar spine results in spondylolisthesis, but the severity and type of the anterior slippage is the determining factor in the stability of the involved vertebra. Severe pain, deformity, or nerve compromise from pars defects can be treated with surgery. One patient, who underwent direct repair of l5 pars defect showed spinal stenosis at l45 level after 4 years postoperatively and was treated with the simple decompression. Jan 22, 2019 lumbar spondylolysis, a unilateral or bilateral stress fracture of the narrow bridge between the upper and lower pars interarticularis, is a common cause of low back pain lbp in adolescent athletes. The defect allows the l5 vertebra your last vertebra in your lumbar spine to slip forward over the sacrum. Unilateral lumbar spondylolysis on radiography and mri. Spondylolysis is a unilateral or bilateral bony defect in the pars interarticularis or isthmus of the vertebra. Fracture spondylolysis slippage spondylolisthesiswhen the bone defect left by the fracture leads to one vertebra slipping onto another. With the condition of spondylolisthesis, the pars interarticularis defect can be on one side of the spine only unilateral or both sides bilateral. Is standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion a safe and.
The lesion in spondylolysis is a nonunion that follows a fatigue fracture of pars interarticularis. Pars defectcausessymptomstreatmentexercisediagnosis. Spondylolysis presents predominantly in the lower lumbar segment, where the. This break leads to a separation of the upper, front portion of the vertebra from its lower, back portion. However, due to the static nature of mri imaging acquired with the patient lying down, stability at the affected level is uncertain. A comparison of the techniques of direct pars interarticularis repairs. The role of mri is to determine the severity of any central spinal canal stenosis or neural foramen and to identify a potential cause such as a pars defect. Pdf finite element analysis of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine.
Lumbar spondylolysis, a unilateral or bilateral stress fracture of the narrow bridge between the upper and lower pars interarticularis, is a common cause of low back pain lbp in adolescent athletes. Pars defect is a condition that affects the lumbar spine, causing low back pain. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis orthoinfo aaos. A spondylolysis is the name given to a stress fracture of the lumbar spine lower back and specifically affects a. However, instances of spondylolysis l5l4 also occur. Bilateral l5 pars defects present, with associated grade 1 anterolisthesis of l5 on s1 and stenosis of the left neural exit foramen. Spondyolisthesis spondylolisthesis anterolisthesis. In the report is says there are probably l5 pars defects and sacroiliac joints appear grossly normal. A pars defect of the lumbar spine involves a part of a vertebra called the pars interarticularis. Lumbar spondylolysis is a unilateral or bilateral defect of the pars.
The biomechanics of spondylolysis, part 1 dynamic chiropractic. Direct pars repair surgery using two different surgical. Defects were bilateral but only one side is depicted here. Also known as pars defect, lumbar stress fracture, lumbar spine stress fracture, stress fracture of the pars interarticularis what is a spondylolysis. Jan 31, 2012 one patient, who underwent direct repair of l5 pars defect showed spinal stenosis at l45 level after 4 years postoperatively and was treated with the simple decompression. Some people have no symptoms, but low back pain is the most common symptom if symptoms exist. Ive done pt, chiro, injections, nerve deadening, ice, narcotics, tens treatment, massage, nsaids, etc and things are still getting worse.
Spondylolysis is a condition in which there is a defect in a portion of the spine called the pars interarticularis a small segment of bone joining the facet joints in the back of the spine. It gets its name from the part of the vertebra it affects the pars interarticularis. Nonconsecutive pars interarticularis defects pubmed. Clinical outcome of minimally invasive repair of pars. A spondylolysis is the name given to a stress fracture of the lumbar spine lower back and specifically affects a region of bone known as the pars interarticularis figure 1. Chiropractic management of mechanical low back pain secondary. Spondylolisthesis is defined as a slip of one vertebral body relative to an adjacent vertebral body. Traditionally, spondylolisthesis is defined as an anterior displacement of a vertebral body in relation to the segment immediately below. Congenital laminar defect of the upper lumbar spine associated with pars defect. All of these areas have a direct impact to the lumbar spine and the pars defect.
It is best demonstrated on oblique radiographs of the. It particularly affects the area of a bone called pars interarticularis in the spinal vertebrae. Bilateral pars defects at the l4 vertebra result in increased. Jan 30, 2017 a pars defect is a problem that typically develops in the lumbar portion of the spine. Direct repair of lumbar spondylolysis by bucks technique. The defect of the pars interarticularis might occur on one or both sides of the back, known as unilateral or bilateral l5 spondylolysis, respectively. An mri scan can evaluate changes in the par interarticularis to diagnose active spondylolysis or inactive spondylolysis. Spondylolysis of the lumbar spine has traditionally been treated using a variety of techniques ranging from conservative care to fusion.
When a defect develops in this area of the vertebra, it can lead to separation of the upper, front portion of the bone and the lower, back portion. The pars interarticularis is a small segment of bone from the vertebral arch joining the facet joints of the spine. A defect in the pars is a break in this portion of bone. Computed tomography revealed a bilateral l5 pars defect without. The most common type of isthmic spondylolisthesis is l5s1 spondylolysis, which is when the lowest lumbar vertebra slides onto the sacrum.
Spondylolysis is a condition in which there is a defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra. Overview diagnosis and tests management and treatment prevention outlook prognosis. Nov 20, 2005 traditionally, spondylolisthesis is defined as an anterior displacement of a vertebral body in relation to the segment immediately below. Spondylolysis is common in young athletes participating in sports, particularly. Spondylolysis describes various forms of spinal degeneration that accompany the natural aging process. Roughly translated, that means the part between two joints. The treatment of pars defect was first described by bucks in 1970, who used screws in.
Apr 25, 2018 the most common type of isthmic spondylolisthesis is l5s1 spondylolysis, which is when the lowest lumbar vertebra slides onto the sacrum. It represents a weakness or stress fracture in one of the bony bridges that connect the upper with the lower facet joints of the vertebra. Less severe cases can benefit from physical therapy andor pain management. Most commonly, this fracture occurs in the fifth vertebra of the lumbar lower spine, although it sometimes occurs in the fourth lumbar vertebra. Rfa for transitional segment andor pars defect pain. Spondylolysis definition back pain and neck pain medical. Threedimensional planning and patientspecific drill guides for. Pars defects lateral radiograph of the lumbosacral spine reveals a pars interarticularis defect at l5s1 yellow arrow, with mild anterolisthesis of l5 on s1. One case presented with lumbar disc herniation at l45 level which required surgical treatment 2 years postoperatively, after the direct repair of l4 pars defect. A pars defect or spondylolysis is a stress fracture of the bones of the lower spine. Finite element analysis of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine. The pars interarticularis, or pars for short, is the part of a vertebra located between the inferior and superior articular processes of the facet joint in the transverse plane, it lies between the lamina and pedicle. Spondylolisthesis is a condition in which a vertebra in the spinal column slips backward or forward and out of its original place. The most recent literature about the effects of facet tropism on spondylolysis, lumbar discopathy, and lumbar degenerative disease has demonstrated that the fja and facet joint coronal positioning increases at lower levels, the rate of facet asymmetry is higher at the levels with pars defect, and facet tropism is most commonly seen at l5s1 than l45 level.150 1168 600 760 391 1402 1210 577 1466 932 441 831 1161 117 1067 1059 1496 1250 581 195 1471 970 1300 1231 1236 1508 21 178 1264 778 480 996 318 140 980 1473 966 974 1262 1354 810 652 579 691 1008 79 789 1172