A onestep realtime rtpcr assay for the detection and. Aphis craccivora is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. The complete mitochondrial genomes of aphids aphis fabae mordvilkoi, a. Invasive aphids attack native hawaiian plants russell h. Darkbrown ovoid body of apterous female is shining.
Integrated management of aphis craccivora in cowpea using. Spread of groundnut rosette virus by aphis craccivora. The results of preliminary bioassays showed that the target compounds possessed good activities against tetranychus cinnabarinus, plutella xylostella, and aphis. Conservation biological control practices intechopen. Aphis craccivora and aphis fabae were found to infest broad bean in egypt. This aphid known as cowpea aphids or cow pea aphids. Worldwide in distribution, but particularly common in warm temperate and tropical regions. Pdf morphology, biology and behavioral aspects of aphis. Mrp it provides information technology planning, design, application development, systems administration, telecommunications, security, and information management and customer support services for aphis. Mutualism between the bean aphids aphis craccivora koch and ants.
Aphis craccivora fabaceae senna gaudichaudii kolomona, kalamona, uhiuhi m aphis craccivora fabaceae vigna marina mohihihi, nanea, pulihilihi h aphis craccivora malvaceae sida fallax ilima h. The latest information on the biology and distribution of both major and minor. Coccinellidae, when fed on the aphid species, aphis craccivora koch, reared on four host plants, viz. Cowpea aphid aphis craccivora koch ilse schreiner, ph. Aphididae on cowpeavigna unguiculata, fabaceae this research describes the population and biological parameters of the black aphid aphis craccivora koch on cowpea bean vigna unguiculata l. Genetic structure of the aphis craccivora hemiptera. Two methods, whole plant and detached leaf, were used in these experiments. Nostoc calcicola extract improved the antioxidative. Knowing the life cycle of aphis nasturtii can be essential to effective control measures. The aphids, either apterous or alate, are always parthenogenetic viviparous females. Control of the cowpea aphid, aphis craccivora koch. Polyphagous, with a preference for legumes economic importance. Aphididae on cowpeavigna unguiculata, fabaceae article pdf available in acta biologica colombiana. This study assessed the combined effect of metarhizium anisopliae icipe.
Facultative bacterial endosymbionts can play an important role in the evolutionary trajectory of their hosts. Aphis species hemiptera, aphididae living on mulinum apiaceae in south america, with a description of a new species. In general, this pest causes severe damage to beans in warm weather, especially in mediumrainfall areas of the region. Within a few days, nymphs mature into reproductive adults and.
Both nymphs and adults suck plant sap and cause serious damage right from the seedling to pod bearing stage. Abundance of coccinellid predators in some varieties of cowpea, vigna unguiculata l. Eggs develop within the mother and nymphs are born live. Characteristic and variability of five complete aphid. It is a polyphagous species, with a marked preference for herbaceous leguminoseae. The behavior of aphis gossypii and aphis craccivora. It includes many notorious agricultural pests, such as the soybean aphid aphis glycines. Highest aphid densities were developed in the susceptible varieties. See subspecies craccivora for additional information.
Aphis coordinates these responsibilities along with the other designated federal agencies as part of the federal coordinated framework for the regulation. Cowpea aphid aphis craccivora family aphididae this page contains pictures and information about cowpea aphids that we found in the brisbane area, queensland, australia. This page contains pictures and information about cowpea aphids that we found in the brisbane area, queensland, australia. The bionomy and ecology of aphis craccivora on robinia pseudoacacia was studied. Several sources of resistance to cowpea aphid have been identified and efforts are underway to develop aphid. Insecta, hemimetabola, hemiptera, sternorrhyncha, aphidoidea, aphididae common name.
This aphid species is a pest of a wide range of legume species, including yardlong bean vigna unguiculata l. Cowpea, vigna unguiculata was infested at the young, mid. Genetic differentiating aphis fabae and aphis craccivora. Here, we established a protocol of a onestep realtime quantitative reverse transcription pcr realtime qrtpcr using the taqman probe for the detection of scsmv in sugarcane. It is one of the commonest aphid species in the tropics. New 1,3,5trimethylpyrazolecontaining malonamide derivatives based on pyflubumide were designed, synthesized, and characterized using 1hnmr, cnmr, and highresolution mass spectra hrms. Pdf identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea. Nymphs dull greyish, lightly powdered biology it lives throughout the year without producing sexual forms. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. The maximum numbers of mummies in the field were 185. Description adult females are black, the apterae dorsally shiny. Biology and demographic growth parameters of cowpea aphid. Cowpeacereal intercrop alone does not effectively manage the pest. Life table and population parameters of cowpea aphid, aphis.
Biology and demographic growth parameters of cowpea aphid ncbi. It is a major economic pest of groundnut and cowpea, particularly in the tropics, and a significant pest of. Walpers, is a major dietary staple in tropical africa where it is most often cultivated. Aphis craccivora is a vector of several viruses including broad bean mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus and groundnut rosette virus. Biology of groundnut aphid, aphis craccivora koch on cowpea, vigna unguiculata linnaeus walpers. The number of generations per year was determined, as well the lifespan of a generation and fecundity of the females. Identification and characterization of resistance to. Biology and demographic growth parameters of cowpea aphid aphis craccivora on faba bean vicia faba cultivars. While adw staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. Colony development, biology, and demographic parameters were studied to measure the cowpea aphid performance. More than 30 species of hymenopterous parasitoids attack the eggs, larvae, and pupae of aproaerema modicella on groundnut and soyabean.
Morphology, biology and behavioral aspects of aphis craccivora hemiptera. The main species of aphids attacking beans are aphis fabae scopoli and aphis craccivora koch. Aphis craccivora, crop pest, entomopathogenic fungi, median lethal concentration introduction cowpea aphid, aphis craccivora koch is a threat to cowpea growers in all over the country. Aphis craccivora was found to be more dominant than a. Invertebrate microbiology worldwide populations of the aphid aphis craccivora are infected with diverse facultative bacterial symbionts cristina m. Aphis craccivora initially infests cowpea seedlings, but as this plant develops, it may infest flowers and pods berberet et al. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different genotypes of lima bean on the biology of a. Aphis craccivora a polyphagous aphid species with a preference for fabaceae. Aphis craccivora cowpea aphid identification, images. Cowpea aphid, aphis craccivora koch, a serious insect pest in legume agriculture, is reported on all continents except the antarctic pettersson et al.
North carolina agricultural experiment station technical bulletin 255. Aphis in the aphid species file database, accessed on 07012014. Biocontrol of cowpea aphid aphis craccivora koch using. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sapsucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged cpa biotypes. Itis taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. The female has a glossy black or dark brown body with a prominent cauda taillike protrusion, and legs in some shade of brown or yellow. Sometimes on the hibiscus plants in our backyard, we can find this aphids. Aphis is a genus of insects in the family aphididae containing at least 600 species of aphids. Fully revised and updated, this new edition of aphids on the worlds crops is the only publication to provide nonspecialist workers wherever they are in the world, with an identification guide and an information source on one of the main groups of agriculturally important insects. Varietal resistance of cowpea to cowpea aphid, aphis craccivora koch. The damage and bionomics of the aphid are briefly introduced. The biology of aphis nasturtii was observed for four years. Cowpea aphid, black legume aphid, groundnut aphid distribution.
Aphis craccivora, variously known as the cowpea aphid, groundnut aphid or black legume. Appears in 9 books from 19741996 page 273 havenstein, and pa moore 1974b the ecology of aphis craccivora koch and subterranean clover stunt virus in southeast australia. Fungalbased biopesticides offer a better option because they are environment and consumerfriendly. Crop science abstract inheritance of resistance to aphid. Worldwide populations of the aphid aphis craccivora are. External anatomy and life cycle of aphis nasturtii. Sugarcane mosaic disease is caused by the sugarcane streak mosaic virus scsmv. Aphis craccivora is the most important insect pest of.
Our previous study revealed that extract of the cyanobacterium strain nostoc calcicola hn9 expressed positive effect on growth and development, and raised soybean productivity tran et al. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and uptodate information available, ultimate legal requirements with respect to species are contained in. Inheritance of resistance to aphid in cowpea1 bata. Use of pesticides in intercrop leads to health and environmental risks. In plants which produce the phytoestrogen coumestrol, such as alfalfa, damage by aphids is linked with higher concentrations of coumestrol. In order to protect plant health, biotechnology regulatory services brs implements aphis regulations for certain genetically engineered ge organisms that may pose a risk to plant health. It causes direct damage by feeding on the plants and also transmits viruses. The biology of resistance to cpa in sa30199 plants was. Cotton aphids aphis gossypii often infect sugarcane, papaya and peanuts with viruses. Aphid aphis craccivora koch is a major pest of cowpea vigna unguiculata l. Cowpea aphid, aphis craccivora, is a major cowpea pest. Aphid colony, body length 12mm this aphid is known as cowpea aphids or cow pea aphids. It has been known for many years1 that close spacing of groundnuts, arachis hypogaea l. Its feeding causes leaf shriveling and bud deformation and as the population increases, plant infested become weaked due to loss of sap and toxins injected silva et al.
Maintenance of aphis craccivora culture on cowpea plants. During the spring season on the hibiscus plants in our backyard, we find this aphid. Aphididae are infected with a wide variety of facultative endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits, which in turn may drive microevolutionary processes in a dynamic selective environment. Proceedings of biology of the academy of sciences of tajik ssr 454. The cowpea aphid aphis craccivora can be an important pest on lima bean phaseolus lunatus l.
The reproductive and demographic attributes of the aphidophagous ladybird, hippodamia variegata goeze coleoptera. Dedicated to bringing information technology to the business processes and operations of aphis. Nam dan is one of the most valuable crops in agricultural production in nghe an province vietnam. Morphtaxonomic analyses of 2009 aphid collections were carried out and the aphid was identified as aphis craccivora koch commonly called cowpea aphid.1321 1260 1416 595 831 1263 880 292 348 1242 1498 1273 1398 47 38 106 938 1390 225 975 1121 1493 609 1240 585 122 1095 97 1049 391 872 662 57